Prevention of the disease of the supporting tissue of the teeth is the main objective of this branch of dental medicine. Periodontosis is the most common disease of modern man and together with caries it is the most widespread disease of the oral cavity, which affects people of all ages. This is a progressive disease that affects the entire supporting apparatus of teeth (gingiva, cementum, periodontal ligament and bone). It starts as gingivitis - the inflammation of the gums surrounding the teeth (redness, swelling, hemorrhage) and later engulfs the deeper tissue, which leads to the oscillation of the tooth and eventually to their loss, if the condition is not treated.
The main cause of parodontopathy is dental plaque. It contains bacteria, which damage the supportive tissue of the teeth with their toxins. If plaque is not removed regularly, it absorbs minerals from saliva and becomes firm, creating tartar. It is a hard dental deposit, which causes further accumulation of plaque (due to an uneven surface), while physically (by putting pressure on the gums) facilitates inflammation. One of the first symptoms is bleeding when brushing your teeth or using dental floss, as well as tooth sensitivity to cold, pain when chewing, bad breath etc. In advanced stages, parodontopathy leads to a significant gum recession and bone loss. This causes emergence of periodontal abscess (infection that comes from deep periodontal pockets, inaccessible for cleaning), oscillation, tooth movement and loss of one, several or all teeth.
Parodontopathy can be treated conservatively and surgically. Conservative treatment involves the removal of soft and hard deposits, treatment of periodontal pockets but also includes patient education on proper and regular maintenance of oral hygiene, while stressing the importance of going to mandatory check-ups. Surgical method requires surgical treatment of periodontal pockets, and it is applied in advanced stages of the disease.